INDEPENDENT AGENCIES

Internal Revenue Service CID

The Internal Revenue Service CID is the investigative body that deals with felonies involving the violation of the US Internal Revenue Code. Its main objective is to protect and maintain the integrity of the US tax system. The department used to be an Intelligence Unit created by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue in 1919. Because of their prominent investigative skills with highly trained special agents, the department was duly organized to become the Criminal Investigation department of the US Internal Revenue Service in 1978. Its statutory jurisdiction usually concur with the other investigative federal agencies to assist them in their investigations. However, the Internal Revenue Service CID retains its exclusive jurisdiction to investigate crimes related to the Internal Revenue Code.

The Internal Revenue Service CID is vested with various powers and authorities granted by the law, including the authority of its special agents to carry firearms. The primary weapons issued to its special agents as side arms are the Glock 22,23 or 27. They can also carry the AR-15 rifles and Remington 870 shotguns. Its powers and duties include the following:

  • Conduct investigation of individuals or corporations suspected of violating the Internal Revenue Code
  • Recommend prosecution to the Department of Justice
  • Assist in the investigations conducted by the other federal or state agencies
  • Utilize forensic technology in investigating financial crimes
  • Recover evidence and financial data

The authority of the Internal Revenue Service CID was expanded in acquiring jurisdiction to investigate crimes outside of the violations of the Internal Revenue Code. These crimes that the agency may also investigate include:

  • Tax fraud
  • Crimes Related to the violation of the Internal Revenue Code
  • Money laundering
  • Crimes violating the Bank Secrecy Law
  • Narcotics related financial crimes
  • Counterterrorism financing
  • Legal tax source crimes
  • Illegal sources of financial crimes
  • Currency crime violations

Bureau of Diplomatic Security

The Bureau of Diplomatic Security is a law enforcement agency that provides the security service to the head of state. It is under the management of the United States Department of State and the agency is tasked to provide investigation and security services to the prominent US political leaders and ensure the integrity of the implementation of foreign policies within a safe environment. The Bureau of Diplomatic Security is engaged in the law enforcement within a foreign affairs environment. The department was established in the 1916 and they mainly provide security among the diplomats. At the age of terrorism, the department was called to participate in overseas contingency operations and its special agents are widely present around the world.

The duties and powers of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security special agents are expansive in scope because they are also authorized to exercise their powers in the international community to ensure that a foreign policy is duly enforced. Among its duties, authorities and powers include:

  • Investigation and analysis of a potential threat
  • Conduct an international investigation of matter of foreign policy
  • Protect the people and their properties
  • Provide protection to diplomats and heads of the state
  • Conduct an international document fraud investigation
  • Conduct various diplomatic missions
  • Investigate threats directed against the US citizens
  • Protect embassy properties and diplomatic facilities
  • Provide counter intelligence
  • Tracking down fugitives who are wanted in the United States
  • Coordinate and help other investigating arms of the government when necessary

The active investigations of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security involve various criminal activities that usually involve the following crimes:

  • Threats to cyber security
  • Counterterrorism
  • Crimes involving security technology
  • Passport fraud
  • Visa fraud
  • Illegal document vendors
  • Alien smuggling
  • Malfeasance committed by the employees of the US embassy abroad

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA CID)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA CID) was created 1970 under the administration of President Richard Nixon with the purpose of providing protection for the environment. The establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA CID) in 1982 as a criminal enforcement program has ripened into the formation of its criminal investigation organization through the legislative act of Congress in 1988. It became the main law enforcement agency that primarily enforces the federal environmental law and investigates any violation thereof. Its protection extends to the enforcement of the environmental laws related to the land, water and air resources.

The duties of the Environmental Protection Agency criminal division (EPA CID) are carried out by its special agents and employees consisting of investigators, environmental lawyers, chemists, engineers and technicians. The investigating body has the following powers, duties and authorities:

  • Conduct forensic analyses
  • Assist in the prosecution of crimes damaging to the environment
  • Collecting evidences on activities that violate the environmental protection law
  • Carry firearms
  • Serve and execute warrants
  • Make an arrest even without a warrant in cases of the commission of any federal offenses in the presence of its special agents
  • Provide expert legal advice to the Department of Justice, US Attorneys and the Environmental Protection Agency
  • Technical evaluations for the civil and criminal enforcement of environmental laws

The crimes that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA CID) investigate is primarily concerned about the violations of the environmental law of the United States that mainly threatens the health of the people and the environment. This includes the following:

  • Crimes violating the Clean Air Act (sources coming from the emission of air pollution produced from mobile or stationary sources)
  • Crimes violating the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act
  • Crimes involving pollution by waste and chemicals

Federal Drug Administration (FDA OCI)

The Federal Drug Administration (FDA OCI) creates its own criminal investigation department that is responsible for the law enforcement and investigations of crimes involving the violation of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. It also enforces the Anti-Tampering Act and other related federal laws. Its main investigation is centered towards the protection of public health. The office of criminal investigation of the Federal Drug Administration was created in response to the explosion of the generic drug scandals in 1991.

The Federal Drug Administration (FDA OCI) criminal investigation department has federal agents whose powers and authorities are the same as the other federal law enforcement agents. Among the scope of its duties, powers and authority include the following:

  • Employment of customary federal law investigating techniques to investigate crimes related to violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Anti-Tampering Act and other related laws
  • Investigate criminals suspected of engaging in counterfeit medical products
  • Assist in the prosecution of conduct that are potential threats and harmful to the public
  • Investigation of cases that attempt to avoid the authority of the FDA to regulate

The main objective of the criminal division of the Federal Drug Administration (FDA OCI) is to protect the public consumers. The function of the FDA is to regulate foods, drugs and cosmetic products to ensure the public safety. Any violations of the laws that the FDA enforces are investigated by investigating special agents, such as the following:

  • Illegal diversion of regulated and pharmaceutical products
  • Fraud involving the application for a new drug
  • Off label promotion of drugs and medical devices that are approved by the FDA
  • Fraud involving medical devices and treatments
  • Illegal substitution of products
  • Product tampering
  • Internet fraud such as selling products not approved by the FDA
  • Illegal importation of FDA regulated products